Drug Dependence

The term ” drug independence far more widely  than most people realize. It is usually thought of in association with use of illegal drug’s like heroin or with excessive intake of alcohol. but millions of american are independent on other drugs, including stimulants- such as caffeine found in coffee and tea, and nicotine in tobacco and certain prescription medicines, such as analgesic, sleeping drugs, and tranquilizer ( anxiety drug).

Physiological and physical dependence. Drug dependence, implying a persons inability to control use of substance with an abuse potential, is of two types, emotional state of craving for a drug whose presence in the body has a desired effect or whose absence has an undesired effect, Physical dependence, which often includes psychological dependence, involves physiological adaption to a drug or alcohol, characterized by severe physical disturbance.- withdrawal symptoms- during a prolonged period of abstinence. Physical dependence on a drugs is further characterized  by a developing tolerance to the drugs effect. the line between tolerance and lethal dosage is something extremely fine. Drug independence is now widely preferred to the world addiction, defined as the compulsive use of a substance resulting in physical,psychological or social harm to the user, with continued used despite the harm.

Drugs which cause dependence. Many people who need to take a regular medications worry that they may become dependent on their drugs, infact only a few groups of drugs produce physical dependence, most of them substances that alter the mood or behavior. such as drug include heroin and the narcotic analgesic (morphine,meperidine, and other similar drugs), sleeping drugs  and anti anxiety drugs benzodiaszepines and barbiturates), depressant (alcohol), and nervous system stimulants (ampetamines,cocaine, and nicotine). the use of nicotine in the form of tobacco and the controlled or uncontrolled use of narcotics analgesics invariably produce physical independence. If taken regularly over a period of time. however, it is equally true that not all regular user of alcohol become alcoholics. There is much argument over the definition preferred by the AMA is: A person who has experienced physical,psychological, social, or occupational impairment due to habitual excessive consumption of alcohol.

Recognizing The Dangers Of Drug Dependence. Factors that determine the risk of developing physical dependence include the characteristics of the drug itself, the strength and the frequency of doses, and the duration of use, however, the presence of these factors does not always result in dependence.

Psychological and physiological factors unique to each individuals also enter the equation, and there maybe others as yet unknown factors involved. For example when the use of narcotic analgesics is restricted to the immediate shorterm relief of severe pain in a medial setting, long term dependence is rare. Yet there is a high risk of physical dependence when narcotic analgesics, or other drugs of abuse, are taken for non medical reason. There is also risk in some cases of low dose use when continued over a long period of time for chronic pain. no one can say for sure just what leads an individual to drug dependence behavior. A persons physical and physiological make up are thought to be factors, as well as his social environment, occupational pressures, and outlook on life. motivation and setting play major roles. indiscriminate use of certain prescription drugs has also caused drug dependence, with the barbiturate sleeping pills drugs commonly cited. Benzoduazepines, which are much less likely to lead to a single fatal dose, have largely replaced them, though physicians discourage  the use of any drug to induce sleep or calm anxiety for than a few weeks. Appetite suppressants require close supervision. Similarly, amphetamines are now prescribe for a fewer conditions than in the past because of the frequency with they are abused.

Treating Drug Dependence when a person is dependent on a drug, the cells in the body have adapted to a new chemical environment. To move someone from that condition to a drug free state is a complex medical process. But a patient must become completely drug-free before long term rehabilitation can occur. The first step, detoxification, can take different forms. In cases of alcohol dependence, abstinence may often be abruptly imposed. with other substance, the drug maybe gradually withdrawn, or other safer substances substitute. There are however, differing schools of thought, and some treatment center argue for the abrupt cessation method of detoxification for substances beside alcohol. Withdrawal can be mild or violent, and is occasionally fatal. Expert medical supervision is required. Drugs maybe given to provide symptomatic relief. Once a person is drug free, rehabilitation measures begin. Drug therapy such as the use of dissulfiram( antabuse for alcoholism)-psychotherapy, personal counseling and the work of support organization like alcoholics anonymous play an important role for this.

Drug Abuse The term is designed as any use of drugs that causes physical,psychological, economic, legal, or social harm to the user.or to the person who maybe affected by the user behavior. Drug abuse commonly refers to taking drugs illegally (such as heroin), but may also be use to describe the misuse of drugs generally obtainable legally( nicotine,alcohol) and to drugs obtainable through a physicians prescription only ( everything from sleeping pills drugs and tranquilizer to analgesic and stimulants). The abuse of prescription drugs deserves more attention than it usually receives. the practice can include the personal use of drugs left over from the previous course of treatment. the sharing with others of drugs prescribed for yourself. the deliberate deception of physicians can have dangerous consequences. careful  attention advice to the selection on managing your drug treatment.

Common Drugs Of Abuse

  • Alcohol
  • Amphetamines
  • Amyl nitrate and similar drugs
  • Cocaine
  • Heroin’
  • LSD
  • Marijuana
  • Meperidine
  • Mescaline
  • Nicotine
  • Phencyclidine
  • Solvents

Drug Tolerance

Drugs tolerance occurs as the body adapt to the actions of a drug. although people can develop a tolerance to any drugs, it is a dangerous characteristic of virtually all of the drugs of dependence. A person taking them needs a larger and larges doses to achieve the original effect; as the dose increase, so do the risk of toxic effect and dependence . the explanation of tolerance, is still not fully understood, highly complex. It stems from one or both of two actions. One is the liver increasing its capacity to break down and dispose of the drug. Giving lower concentration of it in the bloodstreams and a shorter of duration. The other potential action involves adaption by the cell of the central nervous system,including the brain to the drug, lowering the responsiveness. Brain tolerance can also lead to cross tolerance, a person tolerance to one drug leading to tolerance of similar drugs. for example, the regular drinking who can tolerate high levels of alcohol (a depressant) can have a sometimes dangerous tolerance to other depressant such as sleeping drugs and anti-anxiety drugs. while cross tolerance raises problems, It does allow a substance with a less addictive potential to replace the original. the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal can thus be controlled by the anti-anxiety drug.

Tolerance to some drugs has its benefits. A person can, for example, develop a tolerance to the side effect of the drugs but remain responsive to its curative power. Many people taking antidepressant find that side effect such as dry mouth, constipation and blurred vision slowly disappear,  with the primary action of the drugs continuing. Increasing tolerance does, however, have danger. A person with developed tolerance tends to increase dosage, sometime to the toxic level.

Dosage And Effect In The Drugs Tolerance.

The chart below show how some effects these may be intended or unintended of a fixed dose tolerance producing drug’s gradually diminish over a period of time. If after this time the dose is significantly increased, the drugs effect is restored. Remember dosage of prescribed drugs should never to be increased except on your physician instructions.

 

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