Most drugs are especially prepared in a form designed for a convenience of administration. this help to ensure that dosages are accurate and that taking that medication is as easy as possible. Inactive ingredients ( those with no therapeutic effect) are sometimes added to flavor or color of the medicine, or to improves its chemical stability, extending the period during which it is effective. the more common drugs form are described in detailed below.
TABLET. –This contain the drug compressed into a solid dosage form, often round in shape. other ingredient are added to the powder prior to compression, often reducing an agent to bind the tablet together. the active drugs released slowly after the tablet has been swallowed whole. whole producing a prolonged sustained effect.
CAPSULE.–The drug is contained in a cylindrically shaped gelatin shell that breaks open after the capsule has been swallowed, releasing the drug. slow release capsule contain pellets that dissolve in the gastrointestinal tract.
LIQUIDS.–Some drug are available in liquid form, the active substance being combined in a solution, suspension or emulsion with other ingredient- solvents, preservatives, and flavoring coloring agents. many liquid preparations should be shake before used to ensure that the active drugs is evenly distributed. if it is not, inaccurate dosage will result.
A MIXTURE. A mixture contain one or more drugs, either dissolved to form a solution or suspended in a liquid ( often water).
An ELIXIR. An elixir is a solution of a drug, often high flavored. it usually contains a high proportion of alcohol, plus sugar.
AN EMULSION. An emulsion is a drug dispersed in oil and water. an emulsifying agent is often included to stabilize the product.
A SYRUP. A syrup is a concentrated solution of sugar containing the active drug, with flavoring and stabilizing agents added.
TOPICAL SKIN PREPARATIONS
These are preparations designed for application to the skin and other surface tissues of the body. preservatives are usually included to reduce the growth of bacteria. the most commonly used types of skin preparation are described below.
A CREAM.– A cream is a non-greasy preparation used to apply drugs to an area of the body or to cool or moisten than an ointment.
AN OINTMENT.– An ointment is a greasy preparation used to apply drugs to an area of the body, or as protective agent for dry skin solution.
INJECTION SOLUTION.— Solution for injections are sterile (germ free) preparation of drugs dissolved or suspended in a liquid. other agents (anti oxidant) are often added to preserve the stability of the drug to regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. most inject able drugs used today are package and sterile disposable syringes. this reduce chances of contamination. certain drugs are still available in multiple -dose vials, and a chemical bactericide is added to prevent the growth of bacteria when the needle is reinserted through the rubber seal.
SUPPOSITORY.— A suppository is a solid, bullet-shaped dosage form especially designed for easy insertion into the rectum (rectal suppository) or vagina (vaginal suppository). It contains a drug and an inert (chemically inactive) substance that is often derived from cocoa butter or another type of vegetable oil. these active drug is gradually released in the rectum or vagina as the suppository dissolves at body temperatures.
EYE DROPS.– A sterile drug solution ( or suspension) dropped behind the eyelid to produce an effect on the eye.
EAR DROPS.-– A solution ( or suspension) containing a drug introduce into the ear by dropper. ear drops usually given to produce an effect on the outer -ear canal.
NASAL DROPS/SPRAY.— A solution of a drug, usually in water, for introduction into the nose to produce a local effect.
INHALERS.— Aerosol inhalers contain a solution or suspension of a drug under pressure. a valve mechanism ensures the delivery of the recommended dosage when the inhaler is activated. a mouthpiece fixed to the device facilities inhalation of the drug as it released from the canister. the correct technique is important; printed instruction should be followed carefully. aerosol inhaler are used to for respiratory conditions such as asthma.